Nammalvar Books In Tamil 67.pdf
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Prolonged extracorporeal circulation (ECC) is a risk factor for platelet activation, consumption and dysfunction. The objective of this study was to analyze changes in platelet function of platelets from pediatric patients undergoing ECC. A cross-sectional study was carried out to analyze platelet function in pediatric patients who were undergoing cardiac surgery in a 30-month period (1 January 2009 - 31 December 2010). A standard blood sampling protocol was performed in each patient prior to initiation of ECC (T0), at the end of ECC (T1), and after aortic unclamping (T2). Platelet function was evaluated by two different tests: (1) the ADP-induced platelet aggregation by the optical method using the two-channel platelet aggregometer, and (2) the activated platelet surface by flow cytometry, using FITC-PAC1 antibody. Platelet aggregation was decreased at T1 (61.8 ± 2.0%) compared with T0 (75.6 ± 3.1%, p = 0.006). At T2, platelet function returned to the pre-ECC state (80.0 ± 2.3%, p = 0.021). Platelet activation increased at T1 (26.4 ± 2.6%) compared with T0 (18.1 ± 1.3%, p = 0.048), returning to the pre-ECC state at T2 (22.7 ± 1.4%, p = 0.03). In pediatric patients undergoing ECC, platelet function is decreased during surgery but is restored after aortic unclamping.The diversity of chemical communication systems in the mammalian brain.
Endogenous ligands are distributed throughout the brain, and their concentrations are controlled by circadian and hormonal rhythmicity, food intake, and the activity of neurotransmitter systems. Ligands for adenosine, dopamine, norepinephrine, and serotonin are the primary targets of this communication system. Recent studies indicate that purinergic and cholinergic neurotransmitters 0b46394aab